Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
The Indian Space Research Organisation also known as ISRO is the space agency of India that reports Indian government. ISRO has its head quarter in the city of Bengaluru and it was formed in the year 1969 superseding Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR).
The main vision of ISRO is to “harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research & planetary exploration”.
Formation of ISRO
In 1950s, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was founded with Homi Jehangir Bhabha as its secretary, which provided funding for space research in India. During the time, tests continued on various aspects of meteorology and the Earth’s magnetic field etc.
In 1962, Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was set up by Indian Government with the help of visionary Dr Vikram Sarabhai. INCOSPAR set up the first rocket launching station as Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in Thiruvananthapuram for upper atmospheric research.
In 1969, INCOSPAR was superseded by newly formed IRSO, The Indian Space Research Organisation.
As Stated By Vikram Sarabhai:
There are some who question the relevance of space activities in a developing nation. To us, there is no ambiguity of purpose. We do not have the fantasy of competing with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the Moon or the planets or manned space-flight. But we are convinced that if we are to play a meaningful role nationally, and in the community of nations, we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society, which we find in our country. And we should note that the application of sophisticated technologies and methods of analysis to our problems is not to be confused with embarking on grandiose schemes, whose primary impact is for show rather than for progress measured in hard economic and social terms.
Also Former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam :
Very many individuals with myopic vision questioned the relevance of space activities in a newly independent nation which was finding it difficult to feed its population. But neither Prime Minister Nehru nor Prof. Sarabhai had any ambiguity of purpose. Their vision was very clear: if Indians were to play meaningful role in the community of nations, they must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to their real-life problems. They had no intention of using it merely as a means of displaying our might.
Extra Terrestrial Exploration By ISRO
Chandrayaan-1 was the first mission to Moon by India.The lunar exploration mission included a lunar orbiter and an robotic impactor called the Moon Impact Probe. ISRO launched the spacecraft using the PSLV rocket on 22.10.2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.
Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalayaan)
The Mars Orbiter Mission also known as Mangalayaan, was launched from Earth orbit on 5th November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and has reached the Mars orbit on 24th September 2014 and with this India becomes the first country to enter Mars orbit on its only attempt. ISRO completed the mission with a record low cost of $74 million.
Chandrayaan-2 is second part moon mission, which constitutes of an orbiter, a lander and a rover. Chandrayaan-2 was launched on a GSLV-MkIII rocket on 22 July 2019. All of parts used in Chandrayaar-2 were developed by India and in India. It is the first mission meant to explore the less explored lunar south pole region.
Upcoming Extra-Terrestrial Projects By ISRO
ISRO has its plans to carry out a Solar mission by the year 2020. The space probe is named as Aditya-L1 and will have a mass of about 400 kilogram. Aditya-L1 is the first Indian space-based solar corona-graph to study the corona of sun in visible and near-IR bands. Launch of the Aditya-L1 mission was planned in the year 2012, but was postponed to 2021 some technical aspects.
Chandrayaan-3 is a upcoming third lunar exploration mission by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), will be launched in 2021. After Chandrayaan-2 failure of soft landing attempt after a successful orbiter placement, Chandrayaan-3 was proposed. Chandrayaan-3 will be a repeat of Chandrayaan-2 only without a orbiter.
ISRO is planning an orbiter mission to Venus (Shukra In Hindi) called Shukrayaan-1, that may launch in early 2023 to study Venus’s atmosphere.
Mars Orbiter Mission-2 (Mangalyaan-2)
Mars Orbiter Mission 2, also known as Mangalyaan 2 will be launched in 2024 is another mission to Mars by ISRO. It will have a less elliptical orbit around the planet Mars and could weight seven times more than the first mission and expected to solve some open world science problems.