Introduction of Maurya Empire
The Maurya empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya in 320 before Christ (after defeating the incumbent Nanda dynasty). He established the primary territorial empire in ancient India, covering most of the Indian subcontinent. He was assisted by his political consultant, Kautalya, who additionally started out the foundations for the administration of the country. This broad framework of administrative organization was adopted by several succeeding dynasties.
The most famed king of the Mauryan dynasty was Ashoka, the grandchild of Chandragupta Maurya. He was an bold king who wished to be a “CHAKRAVARTIN SAMRAT” or ‘Ruler of the Universe’. He embarked on a course of conquests to increase his empire. One among the foremost important conquests was the dominion of Kalinga. Within the battle, the casualties were terribly high and were in the course of intensive destruction. Upon observing the implications of the war, Ashoka experienced nice compunction and vowed to abstain from any more violence.
Rulers of Maurya Dynasty
Chandra Gupta Maurya(c. 321 – c. 297 BCE):
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan Empire in ancient Republic of India. He built one among the largest-ever empires on the Indian subcontinent and so, in line with Jain sources, he renounced it all and have become a jain monk. Historical Jain texts claim Chandragupta followed Jainism by 1st renouncing his wealth and power, effort with Jaina monks, and acting a ritual of peacefully welcoming death by fasting.
Chandragupta was a student of a famous teacher and strategist, Kautilya. Once Chandragupta had conquered the Nanda throne, he invaded the Punjab – and he was lucky. In 317, one among Alexander’s successors, Peithon, the satrap of Media, tried to subdue the leaders of the eastern provinces, who united against him. This war offered Chandragupta the chance he required and he was ready to capture Taxila, the capital of the Punjab.
Chandragupta had united the Indus and Ganges valley – a formidable empire. There was a secret service, there were inspectors, there was a large army, and also the capital at Patna became a beautiful town. His advisor Kautilya wrote a guide to wiseness that is understood as Arthasastra. A Greek traveller, Megasthenes, provides a very strange description of the class structure (accepting seven rather than the same old four categories of people), and it is likely that he describes an attempted reform.
Bindusara Maurya (c.297-c.272 BCE)
Bindusara was the son of Chandragupta. His reign lasted 1 / 4 of a century, until 272, however of the 3 great Mauryan emperors, he’s the least known. as an example, he’s mentioned because the man who conquered “the country between the 2 seas” (the Bay of Bengal and therefore the Arabian Sea), that suggests that he conquered central India, however a similar deeds are ascribed to his son Ashoka.
Bindusara had some contacts with the so much west, wherever Antiochus I Soter had succeeded his father Seleucus as king of the Seleucid empire. Bindusara approached him, posing for wine, figs, and a philosopher – the king causing him solely the two first merchandise, expression that philosophers were not fit for export. whatever one is bothered this report, it proves that there have been diplomatic contacts.
It comes as a surprise, therefore, that Bindusara is termed Amitrochates in Greek sources, that merely a rendering of Bindusara’s name. A potential rationalization is that Bindusara had accepted a throne name Amitraghata, ‘destroyer of enemies’.
Ashoka Maurya (c.272-c.232 BCE)
Ashoka, who succeeded his father Bindusara in 272, was an excellent conqueror of Maurya Empire, and also the first to unite the Indian subcontinent, except for the intense south. However, the emperor came to hate war after he had seen the bloodshed of the conquest of Kalinga in eastern India, and he regenerate to Buddhism.
He wished to establish dhamma, ‘the law of justice’, all over in India and Arachosia. It looks that Ashoka was sincere once he declared his belief in ahimsa (non-violence) and cooperation between religions (“contact between religions is good”). He never conquered the south of India or Sri Lanka, which would are logical, and instead sent out missionaries -as way away as Cyrenaica- to convert others to an equivalent beliefs, and sent his brother to Sri Lanka.
He erected many stupas, supported Buddhist monasteries, softened the tough laws of Bindusara and Chandragupta, forbade the brutal slaughter of animals, and arranged a large Buddhist council at Patna, that had to ascertain a replacement canon of sacred texts and repress heresies.
The fall of Maurya Empire
After the death of Ashoka, the Maurya empire declined. In c.240, the Bactrian leaders -who were of Greek descent- revolted from their Seleucid overlords, and though king Antiochus III the great restored order in 206, the Bactrian leader Euthydemus declared himself independent inside a decade. Not a lot of later, the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom distended into Drangiana and Gandara.
The invasion of the Punjab, that came about in 184, revived the Greek culture within the region south of the chain mountain range, where Euthydemus’ son general created a brand new kingdom, consisting of Gandara, Arachosia, the Punjab and even a section of the river depression. Demetrius died in c.170 and left his kingdom to his sons, WHO continued to fight against the Mauryan empire.
However, they were divided. But when king Menander reunited the Indo-Greek kingdom in c.125, the westerners were able to invade the region of the already narrowed Mauryan empire, and even captured Patna. never incorporates a Greek army reached a additional eastern point.
Key Points To Maurya Empire:
- India was hard to unite because of diverse geography.
- Many rival kingdoms existed across the northern plains Chandragupta Maurya Used his army to conquer northern India, United North India under his rule Had a well-organized government Strong central government Collected taxes Built roads and harbors to increase trade.
- Chandragupta crushed any opposition to his rule feared assassination by his enemies secret service to report on dissention in his empire.
- Ashoka Grandson of Chandragupta Becomes emperor ,Converts to Buddhism after bloody battle to conquer the Kalinga.
- Horrified by the brutality of war stops attempts to expand the empire.
- Leadership issues Empire began to decline after the death of Asoka. His sons and grandsons that ruled after him were weaker leaders and could not hold the empire together.
- Maurya Empire divided into separate kingdoms.
- It was too large and could not remain functioning under the rule of a weak king.
Since Then, none other than Gupta Empire that unites the India that leads many cultural and scientific advances across the country.